Our Canadian History

Nova Scotia and Confederation


Nova Scotia and confederation.

Nova Scotia entered Confederation reluctantly. Through thousands of years of independent Mi’kmaq rule, and then European settlement beginning in the early 1600s, the people of the area had always had a strong sense of independence. In 1848, Nova Scotia became the first colony in British North America to achieve responsible government. A form of democratic self rule.  

By the 1860s, the coastal settlements of the colony were flourishing, thanks to shipbuilding, fishing, farming and trade. But Nova Scotia faced a crossroads: should it join the proposed Dominion of Canada, or should it remain a separate British colony?

Against Confederation

Joseph Howe,  a journalist and politician, had led the drive for responsible government and now opposed joining Canada. He believed Nova Scotia would become a neglected member of a larger country, but would flourish on its own. He also argued that the 331,000 people of the colony should decide the matter.

Howe emphasized Nova Scotia’s geographic and cultural distance from Canada West (Ontario)and Canada East (Quebec). “Did anybody ever propose to unite Scotland with Poland or Hungary?” He asked in the Halifax Chronicle. “Inland countries 800 miles off in the very heart of Europe.” To Howe, the situation in British North America was similar.

Many Nova Scotians in prosperous shipping, shipbuilding and farming communities saw little benefit in uniting with the other BNA colonies. Most felt closer family and economic ties to the New England states than to distant Canada West and Canada East.

Tupper and Confederation

Despite popular opposition, the Nova Scotia delegations to the 1864 Charlottetown and Quebec conferences committed to making the colony part of Confederation. Joining the new country, advocates said, would provide greater security against possible American expansionism, a wider domestic market for Nova Scotia trade goods, and financial help for the construction of a national railway, linking the Atlantic colonies to Ontario and Québec.

Two years later, Premier Charles Tupper, who had led the Nova Scotia delegates, used his government’s majority in the colonial legislature — at the end of his electoral mandate — to pass the terms of Confederation agreed to in Québec.

When Nova Scotia officially became a Canadian province in 1867, two newspapers summed up the opposing views:

“The days of isolation and dwarf-hood are past; henceforth we are a united people, and the greatness of each goes to swell the greatness of the whole,” declared the British Colonist.

“Died! Last night at 12 o’clock, the free and enlightened Province of Nova Scotia,” mourned the Morning Chronicle.

On the Halifax waterfront, protesters burned Tupper in effigy, along with a live rat. In the town of Yarmouth, some buildings were draped in black cloth in protest.

Repeal Movement

Although Tupper had forced through Confederation, the citizens who could vote rejected it. In the joint 1867 provincial and federal election, Howe’s Anti-Confederation League and others opposed to the union won 36 out of 38 seats in the provincial legislature, and 18 of 19 seats federally – Tupper being the only supporter of Confederation elected to the new federal Parliament.Led by Howe, anti-Confederation Nova Scotians fought unsuccessfully for two years to repeal the union.

In 1868, Tupper and Howe worked out a common way forward. Howe, having failed in every avenue to take Nova Scotia out of Canada, decided he could do more to help his province by working from inside the federal government. In 1869, at the invitation of Prime Minister John A. Macdonald, Howe joined the federal Cabinet. He would later play an important role in bringing Manitoba into Confederation.

Historic Citadel Hill Halifax Nova Scotia

Halifax Citadel National Historic Site of Canada

For about two centuries, the Halifax Citadel — a large hill overlooking the city — served to protect the waterfront city and its inhabitants. It was the hill which prompted the British to build a settlement in Halifax in 1749, knowing that it would be easy to defend. Today, the Halifax Citadel National Historic Site of Canada doesn’t serve to protect the town, but rather to teach people about its history. Explore the star-shaped military fortification, just as it was built in 1856, and which no enemy ever dared to attack. Tour the Army Museum and imagine life as a soldier within the fort walls. Experience the changing of the sentry guarding the Citadel Gates and listen for the Royal Artillery’s traditional Noon Gun. Or take a guided tour and learn about the ghosts that are said the haunt the Citadel to this day.

aerial view of citadel hill

Strange and unknown facts about Canada


Some unknown facts about Canada. Facts that every Canadian should know about its country as it turns 150 years young July 1, 2017. That is truly a milestone.


What does 150 years mean? It is a milestone because it is called a sesquicentennial .

It is the biggest anniversary since our centennial in 1967.

Canada has a wealth of unusual place names. In Newfoundland alone you can count them to your Heart’s content. Some that caught my eye include:

Sober Island, Nova Scotia, which has its’ own brewing company/

Blow Me Down Provincial Park, N.L.

Bacon Ridge, Manitoba

Come by Chance NewFoundland.

Dildo, Newfoundland

Crotch Lake, Ontario

Uren , Saskatchewan

Eyebrow, Saskatchewan

Elbow, Saskatchewan

The longest place name in Canada is:

Pekwachnamaykoskwaskwaypinwanik, Lake Manitoba. It is a very tiny lake in Manitoba.


There are many more next issue.


what is Canadian Confederation?

What is Canadian confederation?



Canadian confederation was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were finally united into one Dominion of Canada on July ,1867. Upon confederation Canada was divided into four provinces, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

How can we commemorate the 150 years as Canada?

We could do some research and find out about the history of our great country.  Search the internet and the library and read about how the country was formed.  We as Canadians have so much to be thankful for. We have to stand back a wonder why so many people actually want to immigrate to Canada rather than other first world countries in the world.

What do we have to offer more than other countries.?

Successful migration with full families.

Free education and medicals

Migration possible for skilled workers as well as investors.

Eligibility for Canadian Citizenship within three years of arrival in Canada with permanent residence status.

Dual citizenship allowed.

Access to the United States and Mexico markets based on the NAFTA agreement

The best country to live in the world and the United Nations keeps reaffirming it!


So these are just some trivia facts to ponder about a country that is celebrating 150 years of greatness!




The Grand Seduction


Since I have seen the movie The Grand Seduction about 4 years ago, now, I truly think it shows such a warm and friendly side of this wonderful province we know of Newfoundland. This is a must-see movie. I urge everyone who is reading this little story to see the movie, streamline it see it on Netflix or buy the dvd, it is simply delightful, such fantastic acting as well.

Newfoundland is a charming place to visit. Anyone who I know from that province is so proud of their home province some would not live there anymore since it is difficult to find a job with all the industry, fishing mostly being a difficult trade to get into and make a living.

Does anyone know when this province joined the fair country of Canada?  Well I won’t make you wait, it was in 1949, Britain’s oldest colony became Canada’s newest province. During the war, Newfoundland’s strategic and vulnerable geographic location had become clear. So, the American troops had been stationed on the island since 1941 and the U.S. later built army bases there as well, signing on for 99 year leases. Newfoundland was an ideal military site, jutting out as it does into the north Atlantic, Canada and Britain also established a military presence on the island, and Newfoundland found itself pulled in three directions at once.

Officially March 31,1949, Newfoundland joined confederation as Canada’s tenth province. This date is sometimes given incorrectly as April1, which was the original choice. Newfoundland’s first premier was a fast-talking, pig-farmer turned political crusader by the name of Joey Smallwood. He ruled the province from 1949 to 1972 and along the way earned a reputation as both a strikebreaker and a lip service socialist. He was responsible for shutting down hundreds of remote outpost communities, forcing the residents to relocate. In his own words, Smallwood was determined to drag Newfoundlanders” kicking and screaming into the twentieth century.

Quote by Joey Smallwood “ I know our  Newfoundland people. I am one of them. I am blood of their blood, bone of their bone, soul of their soul.



The Official Language of Canada


The Official Language in Canada

How did French become the official language of Quebec and New Brunswick?

The official Languages Act is a Canadian Law that came into force on September 9,1969 which gives French and English equal status in the government of Canada. This makes them “official “ languages , having preferred status in law over all other languages. Although the official languages Act is not the only piece of federal language law, it is the legislative keystone of Canada’s official bilingualism. It was substantially amended in 1988. Both languages are equal in Canada’s government and in all the services it controls, such as the courts.

Then there is the French in New Brunswick. I think it is great that they can have their language but it costs the province so much money. The province is always in a deficit. There has to be everything printed in two languages and there is a French hospital and English hospital. This is Canada not France. We the English-speaking Canadians have not rights to jobs unless we speak French and English. There are about 23 % of the people in New Brunswick who speak and are French and they govern the rights of the English people. There has been an increase in the population of the entire country of Canada but the only province that has not increased its population is New Brunswick. This will be partly because of the French speaking rules in the province. The average person moving to Canada will not choose New Brunswick since it is difficult to find a job unless you speak French.

While I worked at the English hospital in Moncton it was becoming so awkward. We had to answer the phone and say hello in both English and French. There were French lessons offered to the English so we could speak French. Very few of the patients were French but the ruling was turning in their favor.

About 10 years ago, we made the decision to move to New Brunswick to retire since I had grown up there and it was less expensive to purchase a house. And survive on a pension. The one thing we didn’t investigate was the language issue. Knowing what I know now I am not sure I would have made the great escape to New Brunswick. I understand that this province is the only bilingual province in the country.

Halifax , Nova

     Sambro LIghthouse


The first permanent European settlement in the region was on the Halifax Peninsula. The establishment of the Town of Halifax, named after the 2nd Earl of Halifax, in 1749 led to the colonial capital being transferred from Annapolis Royal.


Sambro Island Lighthouse, the oldest lighthouse in North America (1758)

The establishment of Halifax marked the beginning of Father Le Loutre’s War. The war began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports and a sloop of war on June 21, 1749.[9] By unilaterally establishing Halifax the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi’kmaq (1726), which were signed after Father Rale’s War.[10] Cornwallis brought along 1,176 settlers and their families. To guard against Mi’kmaq, Acadian, and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax (Citadel Hill) (1749), Bedford (Fort Sackville) (1749), Dartmouth (1750), and Lawrencetown (1754), all areas within the modern-day Regional Municipality. St. Margaret’s Bay was first settled by French-speaking Foreign Protestants at French Village, Nova Scotia who migrated from Lunenburg, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution.

December 1917 saw one of the greatest disasters in Canadian history, when the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship carrying munitions, collided with the Belgian Relief vessel SS Imo in “The Narrows” between upper Halifax Harbour and Bedford Basin. The resulting explosion, the Halifax Explosion, devastated the Richmond District of Halifax, killing approximately 2,000 people and injuring nearly 9,000 others.[11] The blast was the largest artificial explosion before the development of nuclear weapons.[12] Significant aid came from Boston, strengthening the bond between the two coastal cities.


The four municipalities in the Halifax urban area had been coordinating service delivery through the Metropolitan Authority since the late 1970s, but remained independent towns and cities until April 1, 1996, when the provincial government amalgamated all municipal governments within Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality. The municipal boundary thus now includes all of Halifax County except for several First Nation reserves.[13]

The four municipalities in the Halifax urban area had been coordinating service delivery through the Metropolitan Authority since the late 1970s, but remained independent towns and cities until April 1, 1996, when the provincial government amalgamated all municipal governments within Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality. The municipal boundary thus now includes all of Halifax County except for several First Nation reserves.[13]

taken from an article in Wikipedia.


Old Streets of Halifax                                                Buses on the streets of Halifax.


Our Canadian History.

the original Canadian Flag.

This being the  150 th anniversary of the birth of Canada we as Canadians might want to be more informed in case we are in contact with tourists and relatives alike who may be visiting Canada during our birthday celebrations .

When was our nation born? Officially speaking.

On March 29,1867, Queen Victoria signed the British North America Act and on July 1, 1867 it came into effect A new nation was born. Canada consisting of 3.5million people and four provinces. The original four the charter members of Confederation.

Nova Scotia                 Quebec( formerly the Canada East region)

New Brunswick           Ontario( formerly the Canada West region )

The BNA act did not grant the newly formed country independence  from Great Britain Canada was still part of the British empire . Canadians were still British Citizens  The Queen was still the head of state and in matters of diplomacy and international defense  Britain  still called the shots.  The BNA was a giant step in the direction of independence .

The first Fathers of Confederation were John A MacDonald and Charles Tupper. Two of the fathers were also murdered. There was also George Brown who was the editor of the Globe, he was killed by a disgruntled employee, Thomas D’Arcy McGee was assassinated in Ottawa by a suspected Fenian Sympathizer.

The other important Fathers of Confederation were

Amor de Cosmos , who helped bring B.C. into Confederation

Louis Riel the founder of Manitoba

Joey Smallwood, who brought Newfoundland into the fold in 1949

Joh Amagoalik, the Arctic, John A , who has  been hailed  as Father of the Nunavut, the northern territory created in 1999.

This is how the country started. so keep checking for trivia and true facts about how our country began.